Scientists typically submit their papers to the editorial board of a journal specializing in a particular field of research.1 the paper is accepted for publication, the editorial board sends it out for peer review.During this procedure a panel of experts, or referees, 2the paper,judging whether or not the research has been carried 3 in a fully scientific manner.If the referees are satisfied, publication 4 .If they have 5 , some of the research may have to be repeated, but if they 6 serious flaws, the entire paper may be rejected for publication. The peer-review process plays a critical role because it 7 high standards of scientific method. 8 , it can be a controversial area, as it allows 9 views to become involved.Because scientists are human, they cannot avoid 10 personal opinions about the value of each other's work.Furthermore, because referees 11 to be senior figures, they may be less than welcoming to new or unorthodox ideas.
Once a paper has been acc
People have speculated for centuries about a future without work. Today is no different, with academics, writers, and activists once again 1 that technology is replacing human workers. Some imagine that the coming work-free world will be defined by 2 .A few wealthy people will own all the capital, and the masses will struggle in an impoverished wasteland.
A different and not mutually exclusive 3 holds that the future will be a wasteland of a different sort, one 4 by purposelessness: Without jobs to give their lives 5 , people will simply become lazy and depressed. 6 , today's unemployed don't seem to be having a great time. One Gallup poll found that 20 percent of Americans who have been unemployed for at least a year report having depression, double the rate for 7 Americans. Also, some research suggests that the 8 for rising rates of mortality, mental-health problems, and addicting 9 poorly-educated, middle-aged people is a shortage of well-paid job