It's not difficult to set targets for staff. It is much harder, 1 , to understand their negative consequences. Most work-related behaviors have multiple components. 2 one and the others become distorted.
Travel on a London bus and you'll 3 see how this works with drivers. Watch people get on and show their tickets. Are they carefully inspected? Never. Do people get on without paying? Of course! Are there inspectors to 4 that people have paid? Possibly, but very few. And people who run for the bus? They are 5 .How about jumping lights? Buses do so almost as frequently as cyclists.
Why? Because the target is 6 .People complained that buses were late and infrequent. 7 ,the number of buses and bus lanes were increased, and drivers were 8 or punished according to the time they took. And drivers hit these targets. But they 9 hit cyclists. If the target was changed to 10 , you would have more inspectors and more sensitive pricing. If the criterion changed
In Cambodia, the choice of a spouse is a complex one for the young male. It may involve not only his parents and his friends, 1 those of the young woman, but also a matchmaker. A young man can 2 a likely spouse on his own and then ask his parents to 3 the marriage negotiations, or the young man's parents may make the choice of a spouse, giving the child little to say in the selection. 4 , a girl may veto the spouse her parents have chosen. 5 a spouse has been selected, each family investigates the other to make sure its child is marrying 6 a good family.
The traditional wedding is a long and colorful affair. Formerly it lasted three days, 7 by the 1980s it more commonly lasted a day and a half. Buddhist priests offer a short sermon and 8 prayers of blessing. Parts of the ceremony involve ritual hair cutting, 9 cotton threads soaked in holy water around the bride's and groom's wrists, and 10 a candle around a circle of happily married and respected coup
Over the course of many years, without making any great fuss about it, the authorities in New York disabled most of the control buttons that once operated pedestrian-crossing lights in the city.By 2004, fewer than 750 of 3,250 such buttons remained functional.The city government did not, however, take the disabled buttons away—signaling countless fingers to futile pressing.
Initially, the buttons survived because of the cost of removing them.But it turned out that even inoperative buttons serve a purpose.Pedestrians who press a button are less likely to cross before the green man appears, says Tal Oron-Gilad of Ben-Gurion University of the Negev,in Israel.
Inoperative buttons produce such beneficial effects because people like an impression of control over systems they are using, says Eytan Adar, an expert on human-computer interaction at the University of Michigan,Ann Arbor.Dr Adar notes that his students commonly design software with a clickable